Suwine Blog

Suwi Zlatic - Best Sommelier of Austria 2014 | Ambassadeur du Champagne 2015/16 | VINEUS Sommelier of the Year 2016

Barca Velha only 19 Vintages since 1952 released..

Barca Velha is one of the rarest Wines in the World 🌎.. 
The first high quality, unfortified wine produced in the Douro valley, Barca Velha is a benchmark for all Portuguese wine. Since the first vintage in 1952, there have only been 19 releases, making it one of the rarest and most sought-after wines in the world..
Released Vintages:
1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1957, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1978, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1985, 1991,
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The Grange- Icon wine from down under ..

072B1B0E-A62A-41CB-9361-0323CA7C8EF0 The Grange- Icon Wine from down under ..

The Story of Grange

The legend of Australia’s most revered wine is one of invention, passion, risk and determination. Its creation represents a distillation of Max Schubert’s ambition for Australian wine.

“All winemakers should possess a good fertile imagination if they are to be successful in their craft.”



Penfolds Heritage Story of Grange Paper



In a sign of Max Schubert’s determination to make his mark on Australia’s wine industry, he did whatever he could to get his foot in the door at Penfolds, joining the company as a messenger boy in 1931. By 1948, at the age of 33, Max Schubert became Penfolds first Chief Winemaker.


Penfolds Heritage Story of Grange



In the latter part of 1950, Schubert was sent to Europe to investigate winemaking practices in Spain & Portugal. On a side trip to Bordeaux, Schubert was inspired and impressed by the French cellared-style wines and dreamed of making ‘something different and lasting’ of his own.


Penfolds Heritage Story of Grange Barrels



Back in Adelaide, in time for the 1951 vintage, Max Schubert set about looking for appropriate ‘raw material’ and Shiraz was his grape of choice.

Combining traditional Australian techniques, inspiration from Europe and precision winemaking practices developed at Penfolds, Schubert made his first experimental wine in 1951.


Penfolds Heritage Story of Grange Winemakers



Max Schubert was asked to show his efforts in Sydney to top management, invited wine identities and personal friends of the board. To his horror the Grange experiment was universally disliked and Schubert was ordered to shut down the project. What might have been enough to bury Grange in another winemaker’s hands, only made Max more determined to succeed.


Penfolds Heritage Story of Grange Magazine

Late 20th Century


Max continued to craft his Grange vintages in secret, hiding three vintages ’57, ’58 and ’59, in depths of the cellars. Eventually the Penfolds board ordered production of Grange to restart, just in time for the 1960 vintage. From then on, international acknowledgment and awards were bestowed on Grange, including the 1990 vintage of Grange which was named Wine Spectator’s Red Wine of the Year in 1995.


Penfolds Heritage Story of Grange City



Grange’s reputation as one of the world’s most celebrated wines continues to grow today. On its 50th birthday in 2001, Grange was listed as a South Australian heritage icon, while the 2008 Grange vintage achieved a perfect score of 100 points by two of the world’s most influential wine magazines. With every new generation of Penfolds winemakers, Max Schubert’s remarkable vision is nurtured and strengthened.


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Kobe the Kingdom of Beef ...

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Biondi Santi from myth to the legend .. The founder of the iconic wine Brunello di Montalcino....

F1846802-C3A1-4763-841E-DAA948DFFBE0 Myth and the legend...
story of Brunello del Greppo begins with Clemente Santi, nephew of Giorgio Santi, of whom Prof. Baccio Baccetti, in the publication “Cultura e Università a Siena” (Culture and University in Siena) - July 1993 – in the chapter on “Naturalists from Siena” writes, among other things:

Giorgio Santi
“… Giorgio Santi (Pienza, 1746 - Pienza, 1822) dedicated much of his life to naturalistic exploration. Almost immediately after graduating with a degree in Medicine from Siena University he travelled to France, first to Montpellier and then to Paris, where he made the acquaintance of great scientists such as Lavoisier and Buffon. He returned to Tuscany to ask the Grand Duke Pietro Leopoldo license to enter into the service of the Sovereign of Baden, but the Grand Duke, who was very good at recognising people’s qualities, answered by assigning him the post of professor of chemistry and natural history at Pisa University and of Director of the Museum and Botanical Garden. From then on, all his efforts went into teaching, reorganising the Pisa Museum and exploring the land of Tuscany. Under French rule, he was appointed Inspector General of Studies and then under Ferdinando III, Honorary Head of Education of the Tuscan Universities. In the three volumes that describe his travels around the Province of Siena, he concentrated mainly on the botanical and geological aspects of the areas visited. The work was extremely successful, so much so that it was translated into the main European languages. He was among the initiators of the reports on explorations drawn up using the odeporic method, adopted between the 18th and 19th centuries by numerous travelling naturalists…”.

Clemente Santi
The nephew, Clemente, son of Luigi Santi and Petronilla Canali, a pharmaceutical graduate of Pisa University and renowned writer, owned vast estates in Montalcino and Pienza, and dedicated much of his activity to agriculture, particularly to a farm called Greppo, owned by his mother, Petronilla Canali. His knowledge of chemistry and science helped him to elevate his oenological techniques to enviable levels towards the end of his life. Before gaining recognition for his “select red wine (brunello) of 1865”, his Moscatello had also been awarded a prize at the Universal Expo in Paris
in 1867 (an oenologically outstanding acknowledgement given that the French at that time considered themselves to be the only producers of high quality wine worldwide). He made red wines suitable for ageing and had identified racking and barrel-ageing techniques which were more advanced than those used by his peers.

Ferruccio Biondi Santi

Clemente Santi’s daughter, Caterina, married Jacopo Biondi, a doctor from Florence. The aristocratic Biondi family originated from the town of Pomarance. Their son, Ferruccio, inherited his maternal grandfather’s passion for wines and vines (he united the surnames in rightful tribute to the Santi family).
Ferruccio Biondi Santi set extremely severe production standards. Other early 19th-century producers obtained important diplomas for their so-called “Brunello” wines: Paccagnini, Anghirelli, Angelini, Vieri Padelletti, but no one succeeded in continuing the production of their wines beyond the end of the First World War. On the strength of the extraordinary experience of his maternal grandfather, Clemente Santi, Ferruccio skilfully ran the Greppo estate and, as often happens in the most fortunate historical decisions, his success was due partly to adversity: in the middle of the 19th century, oidium (powdery mildew), followed by phyloxera and then downy mildew, struck Europe and consequently Greppo.
The phyloxera posed an unprecedented threat to the survival of his vineyards.
But while the winegrowers tried to create red wines which were suitable for drinking immediately (see also the “governance” of new wine) and therefore capable of generating quick profits from the new vineyards, he looked towards new horizons, making the singular decision to make a wine which he believed would be suitable for long ageing, vinifying 100% Sangiovese. In 1932, he was described as the inventor of Brunello by an Interministerial Commission, which studied the Chianti district, including Montalcino. Towards the end of the 19th century, he began the methodical mass selection of Sangiovese on his Greppo estate.
In the end, he completely replanted all of his vineyards, grafting them on wild vine cuttings, with buds taken from mother plants identified at Greppo: in a certain sense, he pre-empted the Tuscan trend for producing full-bodied red wines, vinifying 100% Sangiovese, by about a century. He died in 1917.

Tancredi Biondi Santi

Ferruccio’s son, Tancredi, was born in 1893. He learned the secrets of the vineyards and cellars of the Greppo Estate from his father even before he went to study oenology in Conegliano Veneto (location of a prestigious viticulture and oenology school – where he studied as a pupil of Professor Giovanni Dalmasso), going on to graduate with a degree in Agronomy from Pisa University. After the death of his father Ferruccio, in 1917, he continued running Greppo alone, while his brother Gontrano bought a farm in Siena. As of the 1920s, he raised Brunello to new levels of class and prestige and became the ambassador for Montalcino and its wines (a photo taken in 1932 shows him watching over the load of two trucks carrying cases full of bottles of Brunello and Chianti, bound for the Port of Livorno and then America). Tancredi Biondi Santi realised that is was necessary to top up the old Reserves, the level of which was falling. He uncorked them, checked to make sure that the wine was still perfect, topped them up with wine from the same vintage and then re-corked them (first doing so in 1927 for the 1888 and 1891 Reserves).
Other winemaking estates all over the Italian Peninsula requested his advice: from the Lugana wine in Desenzano sul Garda, to Chianti in the Siena district, from Fiorano del Principe Boncompagni in Roma to Cirò in Calabria. His final act, in March 1970, was the topping up of his old bottles of Brunello Reserve 1888 – 1891 – 1925 - 1945, in the Greppo Wine Cellar, in the presence of Mario Soldati, Luigi Veronelli and Paolo Maccherini: we can definitely say that that act, perhaps better then any other, represents his career as an expert oenologist, and still confirms the supremacy, diversity and typicality of Brunello del Greppo today.
Brunello di Montalcino Biondi Santi touches the peak of its fame and splendour, enjoying the very highest esteem of the world’s most attentive and refined connoisseurs.

dott. Franco Biondi Santi

Having taken over at the helm of the estate after graduating with a degree in Agrarian Science from Perugia University, Franco Biondi Santi, oenologist, learned the subtle art of vinification from his father, and has continued to run the Greppo Estate, with its unequalled collection of Reserve bottles. This does not, however, mean that he has rested on the laurels of his forefathers. In the meantime, the discipline of the D.O.C. (denomination of controlled origin) had encouraged other winegrowers to plant vines and improve techniques in the hope of exploiting the excellent image of Brunello.
In this scenario, which has witnessed an exponential growth in the number of hectares registered for the cultivation of Brunello (from 76 hectares in 1967 to the current 2100 in 2009), Franco Biondi Santi has increased the production of Brunello del Greppo from the 4 hectares cultivated until his father’s death, to the current 25. He has continued to pursue strict, traditional agronomy and cellaring practices to consolidate the typical characterand improve the quality of Brunello del Greppo, convinced that he can equal (given the same use of the land and vineyards) his great 100 year-old Brunello Reserves.
Thanks to the constant personal international promotion of his wines, since 1970 Franco Biondi Santi has succeeded in creating the understanding and appreciation of the remarkable typical character and quality of his Brunello del Greppo. The future continuity of Greppo is represented by Franco’s two children, Jacopo and Alessandra, who are both working at Greppo already: Jacopo, with his vivid imagination in relation to wines (firmly convinced of the typical character of Brunello del Greppo), Alessandra involved in promoting the estate.


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Fast and Genius-wine knowledge in 60 seconds-


- Charles Palmer, gave his name to the estate, he loses the big battle of Bordeaux..

- Best and Iconic Vintage 1961

- Not produced Vintages 1963 & 1968

-More Merlot than Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc

( rarity on the left bank )

- 2nd Wine : Alter Ego de Palmer 

- Alter Ego de Palmer 1st Vintage 1998

#fastandgenius #60secondsknowledge #suwine

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Fast & Genius-Wine knowledge in only 60 seconds by Suwine-


This now famous site was known as the "Mons Rhingravii" (Mountain of the Rhinegraves) until at least the 12th century, and only thereafter as the "Grevenberg."

By the end of the 19th century, Gräfenberg Rieslings from the estate of Dr. Weil were found on the tables of Europe's high nobility, as well as on the wine lists of grand hotels from St. Petersburg to Paris. The classification systems of that time perpetually ranked both the Gräfenberg and its neighboring Turmberg among the finest of vineyards. Even today the Gräfenberg is viewed with tremendous respect, not least for its outstanding track record in recent years: it is the only site in the world to produce all quality classifications up through Trockenbeerenauslese for every vintage since 1989.

The stony, fragmented soils of the Gräfenberg are deep to medium deep. Phyllite is a major component, interspersed with loess and loam. This soil composition, with its high proportion of stones and excellent water retention, provides the site with an optimal and balanced water supply.

Wines from the Gräfenberg show an intense minerality, nuanced elegance and a long, powerful finish.

Source: Robert Weil Winery

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Uvaia, Slovenia’s new rising star ...

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SAKE, quick guide ..

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Sake - a quick guide ..

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Die drei Dimensionen der Assemblage..

Assemblage die Königsdisziplin Champagne

Foto Credit: Suwine

Quelle: Bureau de Champagne

Die Assemblage der Champagne-Weine spielt mit der Vielfalt der Natur: mit Lagen, Rebsorten und Jahrgängen

Die drei Dimensionen der Assemblage

Assemblage aus unterschiedlichen Crus / Lagen 
Durch die facettenreiche Persönlichkeit des Champagne-Terroirs werden unendliche Variationen geschaffen. Diese subtilen Faktoren verleihen den Champagne-Weinen ihre Einzigartigkeit und Ausdrucksstärke.

Assemblage aus Rebsorten mit komplementären Eigenschaften 
Die Assemblage von Weinen aus unterschiedlichen Rebsorten ermöglicht die Bildung von Kontrasten und sich ergänzenden Eigenschaften.

  • Pinot Noir verleiht dem Wein Aromen von roten Früchten. Bei der Assemblage bringt dieseRebsorte Körper und Stärke.
  • Meunier ist geschmeidig und fruchtig mit intensivem Bukett. Er entwickelt sich schneller und rundet den Wein ab.
  • Chardonnay ist die Rebsorte der Finesse. Noch jung, trägt die Sorte blumige und manchmal mineralische Noten. Durch die langsame Entwicklung ist sie für die Reifung der Weine ideal.

Assemblage aus Jahrgängen mit unterschiedlichen Qualitäten
Von einem Jahr zum nächsten können die klimatischen Bedingungen des Champagne-Terroirs stark variieren. Die Qualität der Trauben, der Moste und der daraus hergestellten Weine hängt von unterschiedlichen Faktoren ab: Frost, Sonneneinstrahlung, Niederschläge, usw.


Trotz der zahlreichen Möglichkeiten richtet sich die Assemblage meist nach den drei schon erwähnten Parametern: Terroir, Rebsorten, Jahrgänge.
Es kann aber auch mit nur einer Dimension gearbeitet werden.

  • Man kann sich ohne Verwendung von Reserveweinen auf einen bestimmten Jahrgang konzentrieren, wenn er besonders gut ist.

  • Man kann eine einzige Rebsorte wählen und einen Champagne Blanc de Blancs oder Blanc de Noirs mit seinem jeweils typischen Geschmack kreieren.

  • Oder man betont die speziellenEigenschaften eines einzigen Crus, das bedeutet Wein aus einem bestimmten Terroir, Lage, Gemeinde oder sogar nur einer Parzelle oder einem Clos.

Die vierte Dimension der Assemblage: Menschliches Wissen und Talent

Durch die Vermählung von Grundweinen, die verschiedene aromatische und organoleptische Eigenschaften aufweisen, kreieren die Weinerzeuger der Champagne einen einzigartigen Wein, der als Gesamtkunstwerk seine Grundweine qualitativ übertrifft und durch seine Ausgewogenheit besticht. Diese Ausgewogenheit kann die Natur nicht hervorbringen und sie wäre ohne menschliches Wirken nicht möglich.


Die Champagne-Erzeuger vermählen unterschiedliche Weine und kreieren daraus immer wieder aufs Neue einen anderen Wein, der als Gesamtkunstwerk seine Bestandteile qualitativ übertrifft.

Dégustation pour l'assemblage du Champagne

Erfahrung aus den Weinbergen

Die Assemblage wird schon weit im voraus geplant, nämlich im Weinberg. Jede Parzelle liefert ein unterschiedliches Ergebnis, je nach Alter der Reben, Rebunterlage, Anbautechnik und vor allem klimatischen Bedingungen des jeweiligen Jahres.

Die genaue Kenntnis all dieser Elemente hilft den Winzern bei der Verbesserung der Qualität der Trauben, indem sie den besten Zeitpunkt für die Lese wählen, auf die dann spezifische Pressungen folgen. Jeder Cru, jedes Marc (eine Presse Ladung von 4.000 kg) und jeder Wein hat seine Eigenheit, die später in die Assemblage einfließt.

Zum Zeitpunkt der Assemblage steht den Winzern oder Chefs de Cave eine ganze Palette an kreativen Möglichkeiten zur Verfügung: nun ist es an ihnen, die größtmögliche Ausgewogenheit zwischen den Elementen herzustellen.

Sensorisches Gedächtnis

Auch wenn die Assemblage selten in den Händen einer einzelnen Person liegt und eher die Arbeit eines Teams aus Familienmitgliedern oder Kollegen ist, ruft sie bei jedem eine besondere und essentielle Erfahrung auf: das sensorische Gedächtnis.

Das sensorische Gedächtnis kommt schon bei der ersten Verkostung ins Spiel, nämlich die der Grundweine, die noch Stillweine sind.

as Gedächtnis speichert sensorische Erfahrungen genauso wie die Anbaubedingungen. Nun sollen all diese Eindrücke in die geplante weitere Entwicklung des Weins einfließen.

Die eigentliche Assemblage kann ein paar Tage oder ein paar Wochen dauern. Es werden mehrere Stichproben gemacht und verschiedene Meinungen eingeholt, bevor die endgültige Assemblage stattfindet. Sie ist nicht rückgängig zu machen.


Die Assemblage kreist um die Beziehung zwischen der Schaffenskraft des Menschen und den Gegebenheiten der Natur. Um seinen Geschmacksvorlieben gerecht zu werden oder einer Tradition zu folgen, bezieht jeder Winzer Position mit seiner eigenen Vision von Champagne. Dabei kann er oder sie entweder den natürlichen Gegebenheiten folgen, oder einen völlig eigenen Stil betonen.

Die Persönlichkeit der Kellermeister spielt auch eine wichtige Rolle. Leidenschaftlich oder zurückhaltend, originell oder konventionell, überschwänglich oder nüchtern – keine Assemblage gleicht einer anderen. Geschmacksvorlieben sind ein wichtiger Faktor. Je ausgeprägter sie sind, desto stärker ist dies am Stil des Champagne abzulesen, und umso mehr ist den Urhebern daran gelegen, an den typischen Eigenschaften dauerhaft festzuhalten.

Das Genie der Champagne-Winzer hat im Laufe der Zeit die Assemblage zu einer hohen Kunst gemacht. Denn die Winzer üben sich seit Jahrhunderten darin, die schwierigen Bedingungen ihres Terroirs und Klimas zu beherrschen und mit ihren Eigenheiten und ihrer Komplexität zu arbeiten, um wunderbare, einzigartige Weine zu kreieren. 

Die Assemblage findet vor den anderen Schritten der Champagne-Methode statt –Schaumbildung, Reifung auf der Hefe, Rütteln, Degorgieren und Dosage. Diese weiteren Schritte vertiefen die in der Assemblage angelegte Harmonie.


Zur Stabilisierung des Weins, die bei Schaumwein besonders wichtig ist, wird der Wein nach der Assemblage und vor der Flaschenabfüllung entweder lang (eine Woche bei -4°C), kurz (Impfung mit Weinsteinkristallen und anschließendem Schütteln) oder laufend kältestabilisiert. Die Maßnahme verhindert, dass sich später in den Flaschen Weinsteinkristalle bilden und absetzen. Anschließend wird der Wein erneut geklärt.



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Do you know "Ao Yun" ??

One of the most prestigious Chinese wines by LVMH.. Chinese rising star..

Do you know the famous and one of the most expensive wines from China "Ao Yun" means “flying above the clouds”, a reference to the clouds that cap the summits of the surrounding mountain chains. 

Situated on the banks of the Mekong River, the region harbors fabulous potential for producing wine, a remote little corner of paradise nestled in the foothills of the Himalayas, not far from the legendary city of Shangri-La. Located in the villages of Adong, Xidang, Sinong and Shuori at the foot of the sacred Meili mountain, Ao Yun vineyards range in altitude from 2,200 to 2,600 meters, enabling the cabernet sauvignon grape to express the full refinement of this unique terroir. Local farmers have worked these lands for centuries, adapting their farming techniques to the steep mountainsides. To respect time-honored local tradition, the grape harvest and winemaking are done entirely by hand. The Ao Yun terroir enjoys exceptional climatic conditions, with temperatures similar to those of Bordeaux. 


Tasting notes:

Vintage: 2015

Varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc 

Sight: intense dark ruby color, with a slightly purple rims..

Nose: intense, cooked-black currants, ripe blueberries , stewed plums, vanilla and a hint of liquorice.

Palate:dry, with high youthful and fresh acidity, velvety tannins and full body.

the palate is confirming the nose just some more dark chocolate and tobacco leaves are coming through. 

Alcohol is quite high 15,5 Vol% but well integrated ..

Tasted @Naturhotel Forsthofgut

Sommelier:Matthias Breitsameter

Photocredit: Jasmina Angelini


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Most expensive vineyards of Bordeaux


As anyone renting an apartment in Manhattan or San Francisco can attest, real estate prices skyrocket when space is scarce. The prized soils of Bordeaux produce beautiful wines and, in some cases, extraordinarily high land prices.

We analyzed data from the American Association of Wine Economists to create this map of the most expensive vineyards in France’s famed wine region. Pauillac leads the pack with an average price of €2 million per hectare. (One hectare is approximately 10,000 square meters, or 2.5 acres.) Pomerol averages €1.5 million a hectare, and Margaux clocks in at €1.2 million.

Apparently, these prices are not prohibitive to all buyers: In 2017, vineyard transactions in France reportedly reached a 25-year high.

By means of comparison, purchasing land in California’s Napa Valley might start at $500,000 an acre. At press time, that’s equivalent to €442,000 per acre, or €1.1 million per hectare.

Here are the most expensive vineyards in Bordeaux, by land prices per hectare, in 2017.

The Most Expensive Vineyards in Bordeaux (Infographic)

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Do you know the most important hops of the world??

HOPS OF THE WORLD Hops types and aromas

Hop´s in the different Countries


In the next few sentences I want to tell you about the different of Hop Verities and there taste.


Hops of Germany

Hop Variety


Aroma and Flavor


Bred at Hüll, Germany, by the Hop Resarch Center in 2006 from Hallertauer Taurus and an unnamed Hüll male. The latest in the line of high-alpha German hops, following Northern Brewer and Magnum.

Alpha acid: 12-17%, beta acid: 4-5.5%

Total oils 1.6-2.4%

Used manly for bitter charges, but has an intense, resinous and spicy flavour.


Classic German landrace variety from the region just outside Nuremburg. Another oft he hops that define German brewing.

Alpha acid: 2-4%, beta acid: 2.5-6%

Total oils 0.5-0.8%

Elegant and delicate like Hallertauer Mittelfrüh;

Spicy and herbal with a light fruity essence.



German landrace hops, the source of countless hybrids grown in the Hallertau region north of Munich. Hallertau Tradition is a modern culivar bred to possess Mittelfrüh´s qualities, and a regular substitue.

Alpha acid: 3.5-5%, beta acid: 3.5%

Total oils 0.7-1.3%

Many people consider Mittelfrüh the king of hops for ist very elegant herbal, spicy flavors and aromas. Delicate and gentle


Another Hüll, Germany, hop bred from Northern Brewer and an unnamed German hop.

Alpha acid: 5-9%, beta acid:2.5-4.5%

Total oils 0.5-1.5%

Versatile hops that can be used at any point in the boil. Have a peppery, spicy flavour; some people locate a hint of mint. Have the delicacy of classic German hops with a bit more intensity.


Developed in Hüll, Germany, at the Hop Research Center. Bred of Mittelfrüh and other stock.

Alpha acid: 2-4.5%, beta acid: 4-7%

Versatile, at times flowery, fruity, or woody. Flavor is gentle enough that Anheuser-Bush InBev made it the feature hops in Beck´s Sapphire.


A more widely grown strain than the original Spalter it was designed to replace. Introduced by the Hop Research Center in 1993.

Alpha acid: 3-6.5%, beta acid: 2.5-5%

Total oils 0.6-0.9%

Similar in character to Spalt Spalter but with more woody, spicy tang.


Very old German variety closely related to Saaz and Tettnanger, cultivated in the region around the town of Spalt, near Nuremberg.

The three are nearly identical genetically, but have become distinct as theyadapted to different environments.

Alpha acid: 2.5-5.5%, beta acid: 3-5%

Total oils 0.5-0.9%

Despite its low alpha acids, delivers an intense bitterness. Flavors and aromas are gentle, with a fruity, woody character.


Very old German variety, closely related to Saaz and Spalt, cultivated in the region around the town of Tettnang.

Alpha acid: 2-5.5%, beta acid: 3-5%

Total oils 0.8-1.4%

Classic German hops are marked by a smooth sophistication and Tettnanger is no exception. But where other German varieties havespice as their principle note, Tettnager has wood, chocolate and berries as well. Lovely hops.


Another project of the Hop Research Center in Hüll, Germany. Developed in the 1980s from German stock including Hallertauer Mittelfrüh. Until very recently the most popular high-alpha hops; now being replaced by Herkules.

Alpha acid: 11-16%, beta acid: 5-7%

Total oils 1.6-2.6%

Very neutral hops with low aroma, designed to be used as bittering hops.



Hops of United Kingdom

Hop Variety


Aroma and Flavor


Developed in the late 1700s of unknown parentage.

Alpha acid: 4-6.5%, beta acid: 2.5-6%

Total oils 0.4-0.8%

Very gentle, smooth hops fused with the identity of British ales – at turns floral, lemony, lightly spicy, and in some cases, savory.



Originally bred in 1934 of Golding stock; now grown across Europe and in the U.S.

Alpha acid: 7-10% beta acid: 3-5%

Total oils 1.0-1.6%

Character really depends on where it is grown. German Northern Brewer is spicier and more herbal, U.S. varieties wilder an more woody.


Developed at Wye College, England, in the 1950s of Golding and wild American stock in an effort to find a replacement for Fuggle.

Alpha acid: 7-11%, beta acid: 4-6%

Total oils 0.9-2.0%

One of the classically fruity English hops, with a marmalade-to-sweet-lime flavour and even a touch of fresh spruce.


One of the first higher-alpha hops, bred in 1972 by Wye College in England. Parentage includes Northern Brewer and Eastwell Golding.

Alpha acid: 8-13%, beta acid: 4.5-6%

Total oils 1.2-1.4%

Provides a clean bitterness with a touch of earhiness and English marmalade bending ever so slightly toward citrus.


Bred at Wye College in England in the 1960s of German hop parentage. Popularized when Bass used it in the 1970s

Alpha acid: 6.5-8.5%, beta acid: 4.0-4.5%.

Total oils 1.0-1.7%

Smooth, clean bitterness and a sharp flavour tending toward marmalade.


Dwarf variety (bines only grow to eight feet) developed in England, derived from a dwarf male and a Whitbread Golding variety.

Alpha acid: 6.5-8.5%, beta acid: 3-4%

Total oils 0.7-1.5%

Similar to East Kent Golding: spicy, earthy hops that at high levels offers intense, sharp bitterness.


Introduced in the 1870s, of unknown parentage. One of England´s two most famous hops, Fuggle once constituted 78 percent of the country´s crop. Sadly not hardy and is slowly dying out.

Alpha acid: 3-5.5%, beta acid: 2-3%

Total oils 0.7-1.4%

The loss is a shame, because its woody, earthy character is unmatchable and as English as Earl Grey tea.



Hops of Australia

Hop Variety


Aroma and Flavor


Proprietary strain developed by Hop Products Australia in 1994, of undisclosed parentage. Crossover hops, high in alpha acids, often used in late- and dry- hopping

Alpha acid: 13-16%, beta acid: 5-6%

Total oils 2.4-2.7%

Intense, pungent strain with tropical-to-stone-fruit and black currant. Some people pick up fresh vegetable notes like celery or cucumber.


Bred in Melbourne in the 1960s from English Pride of Kent hops and open pollination. Was the king of Australia for decades, and the highest-alpha hops at release.

Alpha acid: 7-11%, beta: 4-6%

Total oils 0.9-2.0%

Has a citrus quality but is rougher than American hops; sometimes a fruity, berry-like flavour emerges.


Hops of United States

Hop Variety


Aroma and Flavor


Made from an open pollination crossed with Brewer´s Gold in Idaho in 1968.

Alpha acid: 11-13.5%, beta acid: 7-8.5%

Total oils 0.9-1.3%

Produces a clean, neutral, pleasant bitterness. Flavors sit somewhere between citrus and wood but are not pronounced.


Bred by researchers at Washigton State University and released in 2000, promising for good yield and low cohumulone content. Parentage is half Alsatian Elsasser crossed with several other European varieties.

Alpha acid: 4.5-9.5%, beta acid: 6-9%

Total oils 0.7-1.6%

Similar to Crystal in ist clean, neutral character. Tends toward earthiness with a subtle peach note.


Another oft he recent proprietary strains, relatively high-alpha dual-use hops. Purported parentage includes Hallertauer, American Tettnanger and East Kent Golding.

Alpha acid: 11-13%, beta acid: 3.5-4.5%

Total oils 2.2-2.8%

Versatile, with the potential to produce a wide range of fruit flavors, heavy on the tropical passion fruit and lychee, but sometimes peach and apricot. Fruit, fruit, and more fruit. Used for either bittering or aroma.


America´s great original hops, at one time king in the U.S., accounting for 90 percent oft he country´s crop. Production is now dwindling almost to extinction.

Alpha acid: 5.5-8.5%, beta acid: 4.5-5.5%

Total oils 0.4-0.8%

Has an antiquated black currant flavor and comparatively rough bitterness.




The parentage of the hops known individually as Columbus, Tomahawk and Zeus-believed to be genetically very similar or identical – is one of the great mysteries in hop breeding. One parent may have been Brewer´s Gold, but the ultimate varieties were the result of crossbreeding with unknown plants.

Alpha acid: 14.5-16.5%, beta acid 4-5%

Total oils 2-3%

Among the most distinctive and assertive of American hops, producing a skunky/ marijuana aroma and a sticky, resinous flavor. To some people, they can seem to have a savory garlic or onion note, while others find them intensely fruity. Work best blended with others.


For years growers took this to be a descendant of the German landrace strain, until researchers began to doubt this, as its elements bore a strong resemblance to Fuggle – which is how the USDA now classifies it.

Alpha acid: 4-5%, beta 3.5-4.5%

Total oils: 0.4-0.8%

Has a spicy woodiness that seems related to German varieties, but is also similar to Willamette hops, which are almost entirely Fuggle.


Bred by Yakima Chief, related to Simcoe. Released in 2001

Alpha acid: 15-17%, beta acid: 4.5-5.5%

Total oils 1.0-2.0%

Like Simcoe, dances the line between pine and grapefruit; may express sweeter floral notes when used in late additions.


One of the first hops developed by the USDA, beginning in the 1960s and ultimately released in the 1970s. Made almost exclusively of English Fuggle stock and, interestingly, is being introduced back to England to replace the disease-prone Fuggle.

Alpha acid: 5-10% beta acid: 3-5%

Total oils 1.0-1.5%

Even in the U.S., retains its European character. Has a mild earthy-to-spicy flavour that works in both lager and English-style ales. Lacks the floral and citrusy flavors that characterize orher American varieties.


A compley hybrid developed in Corvallis, Oregon, in the 1980s by the USDA, consisting of a majority of Brewers Gold with Early Green, Golding and German stock.

Alpha acid: 11-14%, beta acid: 3-6%

Total oils 0.9-2.2%

One of the earlier high-alpha hops still popular for its herbal, fresh, and “green” aroma and clean bitterness. Commonly used as a base bittering hops in American ales.


Another USDA hybrid of Hallertauer Mittelfrüh and Early Green, from the 1980s. Named for the conical mountain near Portland, Oregon.

Alpha acid: 4-7%, beta acid: 5-8%

Total oils 1.2-1.7%

Versatile hops with multiple dimensions, from earthy and piney to herbal and spicy. Clean, with gentle character.


Developed by the USDA in Corvallis, Oregon, from German Tettnanger and Hallertauer stock as a replacement for imported hops.

Released commercially in 1997.

Alpha acid: 5-7%, beta acid: 6-8%

Total oils 1.3-1.7%

Very close in characteristics to the German originals. Tettnanger is famous for its delicate aroma, and Santiam has a similar character. However, instead of the spicy German qualities, Santiam has a characteristically American citrus-orange flavour. Regularly used in American ales.


Proprietary stain bred by Yakima Chief, released in 2000.

Alpha acid: 12-14%, beta acid: 4-5%

Total oils 2-2.5%

One of the most popular and distinctive American hops, lending its intense pungent, piney, and grapefruit aromas and flavors to IPAs and pale ales.


Designed to mimic Saaz´s flavors for domestic production in the United States. Contains Saaz, Cascade and other European hop parentage. Released in 1998.

Alpha acid: 6-9%, beta acid: 4-6%

Total oils 1.3-1.9%

A much closer doppelganger for Czech Saaz than American grown Saaz, which tends to bemuch more citrusy. Contains the same cedary, herbal flavour as Czech Saaz.


Hedgerow or low-trellis hops developed by the American Dwarf Hop Association.

Alpha acid: 14-18%, beta acid: 2-4%

Total oils 1.5-2.5%

Extremely assertive; can, in some cases, have deep tangerine and grapefruit. Can also produce onion or durian fruit flavors and aromas-equally intense. A hop that divides beer drinkers.


Superhigh-alpha hops with principally Zeus and Nugget parentage, released by S.S. Steiner in 2006.

Apha acid: 14-17%, beta acid: 3-5%

Total oils 1.6-2.4%

Most find the Bravo bitterness to be relatively smooth, but like Chinook, a minority find it coarse of grating. Earthy to spicy; can produce a slight tangerine flavour.


Seedlings found wild in Manitoba, crossed with British strains in 1919 and released in 1934. Many modern high-alpha hops were developed from Brewer´s Gold.

Alpha acid: 8-10%, beta acid: 3.5-4-5%

Total oils 1.6-1.9%

Distinctive black currant flavour characteristic of older strains. Like Cluster, Brewer´s Gold has an unfashionable flavour some find rough, others strangely fruity.


The first commercial hops from the USDA breeding program at Oregon State University, bred in 1956 but not released for cultivation until 1972. Obtained by crossing an British Fuggle with a plant that originated from the Russian variety Serebrianka.

Alpha acid: 4.5-7%, beta acid: 4.5-7%

Total oils 0.6-0.9%

One of the world´s great hops: versatile, clean and elegant. Exhibits some of the citrus typical of American hops, but is more noted for its floral scent, reminiscent of gardenias.


Bred in 1974 and released in 1990, this variety is three-quarters Brewers Gold, and other unknown stock.

Alpha acid: 9.5-11.5%, beta acid: 3.5-4.5%

Total oils 1.5-2.5%

Classic citrus hops with an almost candy-like fruit quality, but in high concentration it can be pungent and peppery.


Developed in the early 1980s in Washington State by the USDA as a variant of Golding.

Alpha acid: 12-14%, beta acid: 3-4%

Total oils 0.7-1.2%

An aggressive strain; has a character of pine or spruce with hints of citrus. Some people find it gives a harsh, grinding bitterness, but it is one of the best strains for dry-hopping, offering a clean, herbal quality.


Private stain bred by Yakima Chief Ranches, of unknown parentage.

Alpha acid: 5.5-6.5%, beta acid: 5-6.5%

Total oils 0.8-1.2%

Charter member of the American family, but with a more floral aroma and herbal-to-piney flavors than the purely citrusy character that typifies other U.S. hops.


Was discovered growing on Virgil Gamache Farms, a wild hop mutation. Now owned by Yakima Chief.

Alpha acid: 8-11%, beta acid: 6-7%

Total oils 1.5-1.9%

Classically American hops with vibrant orange-citrus highlights and sweet, fruity flavors of apricot, peach and mango. Unlike some American hops, is soft and flavorful, with no harsh edges. Verstile and mutable; used in many pale ales and IPAs for flavour and aroma.


Developed in 1983 in Corvallis, Oregon and released a decade later. Derived from German Hallertau, a half-sister of Mt. Hood and Liberty.

Alpha acid: 4-6%, beta acid: 5-6.7%

Total oils 0.8-2.1%

Offers a very clean, neutral hopping that at high rates can take on a pleasant spiciness.


Product of the USDA´s breeding program in Corvallis, Oregon, with all-German heritage including triploid Hallertauer Mittelfrüh, released in 1991. Bred to be a replacement for Hallertauer Mittelfrüh that would grow in the U.S

Alpha acid: 3-5%, beta acid: 3-4%

Total oils 0.6-1.2%

Gentle herbal, earthy flavors and aroma similar to the original. Like its relative Crystal, is clean and neutral when used for bittering.


Hops of New Zealand

Hop Variety


Aroma and Flavor


Bred in 1997 in the “hops with a difference” program. Like its sister, Riwaka, a cross of one-third Saaz and two-thirds New Zealand stock.

Alpha acid: 6.5-7.5%, beta acid: 5-5.5%

Total oils 0.8%

A charter member of the tropical-fruit club of New Zealand hops, leaning toward lemon-lime.


Bred entirely of New Zealand stock, including the Smoothcone variety.

Alpha acid: 12-13%, beta acid: 6-8%

Total oils 1.0-1.2%

Incredibly powerful; can be used to  produce subtle mango or white wine flavors (“Sauvin” refers to sauvignon blanc).

Also prone to overly intense, saturated flavors that can begin to taste musky or “sweaty”.


Produced during the same breeding trials as Motueka in 1997; a one-third Saaz, two-thirds New Zealand cross.

Alpha acid: 4.5-6.5%, beta acid: 4-5%

Total oils 0.8%

Far spicier hops than the fruity Motueka, with a quality part pine and part bergamot. Unusual and quite distinct from  American varieties.




Hops of Czech Republic

Hop Variety


Aroma and Flavor


Czech landrace hops grown since the Middle Ages in the Zatec region norhwest of Prague. Closely related to Spalt and Tettnanger.

Over 80 percent of the acreage in the Czech Republic is devoted to this quintessential pilsner hops.

Alpha acid: 3-6%, beta acid: 4-6%

Total oils 0.4-1.0%

Distinictive flavour, with a tangy cedar crispness and an undertone of tarragon or rosemary.


Hops of France

Hop Variety


Aroma and Flavor


French landrace hops, originally grown in Alsace.

Alpha acid: 2-4%, beta acid: 3-5.5%

Total oils 0.6-0.9%

Evokes the country with floral, lemon zest aromas and flavors. Once used widely in lagers, but works well with Belgian yeast, particularly in rustic styles.


Hops of Slovenia

Hop Variety


Aroma and Flavor


Grown by farmes to replace disease-ravaged fields in the 1930s. In a case of mistaken identity, they thought they were planting Golding stock, but used Fuggle instead.

Alpha acid: 4-6%, beta acid: 2-4%

Total oils 0.5-1.0%

Earthy with an herbal-to-spicy, white pepper character. Not assertive, but versatile.


Hops of Japan

Hop Variety


Aroma and Flavor


Originally bred in Japan in 1988 of Brewer´s Gold and Saaz stock. In U.S. fields, Sorachi ACE fails to get the very high alpha levels attained in Japan.

Alpha acid: 10-16%, beta acid: 6-7%

Total oils 2-2.8%

For a majority of drinkers, Sorachi ACE tastes distinctly of lemon, eith a slight herbal undertone; a minority of drinkers, however, taste dill.

Text: By Benjamin Zimmerling
























Hops of Poland

Hop Variety


Aroma and Flavor



Polish landrace hops likely descended from Saaz, which it closely resembles. Grown in the region from Pulawy to Lublin, southeast of Warsaw.

Alpha acid: 3-4.5%, beta acid: 3-4%

Total oils 0.5-1.1%

Similar to Saaz hops, with spicy, herbal quality. Can also produce floral, lavender-like aromas. The other common Polish hops, Marynka, also produces a rich, aromatic floral aroma.


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Methode Champenoise most unique technique of winemaking..

Methode Champenoise Bottled miracle

The winemaker kick-starts the effervescence by adding a sweet solution known as the ‘liqueur de tirage’ – still Champagne mixed with cane or beet sugar (20-24 grams/litre, for a rise in pressure by the end of fermentation of 5-6 atm, or 60 to 90 pounds per square inch) plus selected, acclimatized yeast cultures and additives that assist the ‘remuage’ process (riddling). These consist of bentonite or bentonite-alginate that make the sediment heavier, encouraging it to slide down the neck of the up-turned bottle and collect against the cork.

The rules of the Champagne appellation forbid ‘transvasage’: the transferring of the newly effervescent wine from one bottle to another (from a half-bottle to a jeroboam, for instance). All Champagne wines must be sold in the bottle in which they underwent their second fermentation. The bottles used must be made of strong glass, in accordance with strict specifications relating to pressure resistance and general durability. They must be capable of withstanding high pressure and repeated handling.

The bottling (‘tirage’) stopper

Once filled, the bottles are hermetically sealed with a polyethylene stopper known as a ‘bidule’, held in place by a wire cage/metal cap. A few producers still use cork for the ‘tirage’ (bottling) stopper. The bottles are then transferred to the cellar and stacked ‘sur lattes’: horizontally, row upon row, these days mostly in steel crates on a palette.

Inside the bottle, the wine undergoes a second fermentation that continues for 6-8 weeks. The yeasts consume the sugar, releasing alcohol and carbon dioxide, along with esters and other superior alcohols that contribute to the wine’s sensory profile.

Source : Bureau de Champagne 


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Champagne Riddling..

Champagne Riddling Tardition and passion

Towards the end of their long resting period, the bottles must be moved and rotated to loosen the sediment (a mixture of dead yeasts and riddling aids) thrown off by second fermentation.

Known as ‘remuage’ (ridding), this process causes the sediment to collect in the neck of the bottle in preparation for disgorgement: the ejecting of the sediment under pressure that then leaves the wine perfectly clear.

An age-old technique

Riddling involves the gradual tilting of the bottle neck-down (‘ sur pointe’), meanwhile rotating it by small increments, clockwise and anti-clockwise. As the angle of tilt increases, the forces of gravity draw the sediment into the neck.

Manual remuage

Remuage is still sometimes done manually, using a shaking and twisting technique practised over the centuries by skilled cellar masters. A good ‘remueur’ (bottle turner) can handle roughly 40,000 bottles a day, with the bottles placed neck down in a wooden ‘pupitre’ (A-frame-shaped riddling rack).

The bottles are rotated by stages, 1/8 or 1/4 of a turn at a time, to the right or left, with a chalk mark on the bottom of the bottle for reference. The objective is to consolidate the sediments and leave the wine crystal clear. Manual remuage takes 4-6 weeks and involves on average 25 turns per bottle.

Automated remuage

Automated remuage is now much more common, using a machine called a ‘gyropalette’ that can process 500 bottles in a single operation. Gyropalettes work 24 hours a day and take a fraction of the time (one week instead of six,) at no expense to quality.
On completion of remuage, the bottles are neck-down (‘sur pointes’) and ready for disgorgement.

Source.: Bureau de Champagne 




















































































An age-old technique

Riddling involves the gradual tilting of the bottle neck-down (‘ sur pointe’), meanwhile rotating it by small increments, clockwise and anti-clockwise. As the angle of tilt increases, the forces of gravity draw the sediment into the neck.

Manual remuage

Remuage is still sometimes done manually, using a shaking and twisting technique practised over the centuries by skilled cellar masters. A good ‘remueur’ (bottle turner) can handle roughly 40,000 bottles a day, with the bottles placed neck down in a wooden ‘pupitre’ (A-frame-shaped riddling rack).

The bottles are rotated by stages, 1/8 or 1/4 of a turn at a time, to the right or left, with a chalk mark on the bottom of the bottle for reference. The objective is to consolidate the sediments and leave the wine crystal clear. Manual remuage takes 4-6 weeks and involves on average 25 turns per bottle.

Automated remuage

Automated remuage is now much more common, using a machine called a ‘gyropalette’ that can process 500 bottles in a single operation. Gyropalettes work 24 hours a day and take a fraction of the time (one week instead of six,) at no expense to quality.
On completion of remuage, the bottles are neck-down (‘sur pointes’) and ready for disgorgement.


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Wusstest du schon das Château Lafite Rothschild nur einmal als 100%CS produziert wurde??



Cabernet Sauvignon 80 % bis 95 %, Merlot 5 % bis 20 %, Cabernet Franc und Petit Verdot 0 % bis 5 %

Einige Ausnahmen sind zu vermerken:

Jahrgang 1994: 99 % Cabernet Sauvignon und 1 % Petit Verdot ;

Jahrgang 1961: 100 % Cabernet Sauvignon


18 bis 20 Monate, davon 100% in neuen Fässern


16.000  Kisten

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Festvina 2019

Nakon što su nam se slegnuli dojmovi pišemo izvještaj sa Festvina gdje smo imali priliku prisustvovati prije par dana.
Dana, 30.09. održao se osmi po redu "Festvina"  u organizaciji Kuće dobrih vina Koželj.
Festvina je zamišljen na način da se na jednom mjestu okupe najbolji slovenski vinari.

Imali smo priliku sudjelovati u panel diskusiji gdje smo pričali o različitim načinima kreiranja vinskih karti i zamkama pri sljubljivanju hrane i vina.

Suwi Zlatić je bio i u žiriju kušanja vina na slijepo. Zanimljivo je napomenuti da su u žiriju kušali ukupno 5 vina na slijepo i nisu znali od kuda vina dolaze. Pobjedničko vino je bilo iz Bordeaux-a (Chateau Pichon Longueville 2015) a odmah nakon njega je na drugom mjestu bila Rdeča Carolina, Jakončić vinarija. Time se pokazuje ogroman potencijal u Sloveniji i tendencija rasta prema vrhu svjetskih vina.

Cijeli event je bio u znaku kušanja slovenskih i internacionalnih vina, ugodnog druženja i medjusobnog povezivanja.
Sve u svemu, možemo reći da je ovo jedan od najboljih eventa ovog tipa na kojem smo u posljednje vrijeme bili. 


Link na galeriju:


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Champagne-Pressvorgang als Geheimwaffe in der Welt der Schaumweine

Champagne-Pressvorgang als Geheimwaffe..

Der Pressvorgang ist gesetzlich genau geregelt. Seit 1987 müssen Keltereien eine Zulassung beantragen und über 20 Kriterien erfüllen: Kapazitäten für Pressung und Vorklären, Tagesquoten, Pressmaschinentypen, Pressverfahren, Schwefeln und Hygiene. 

Pressoir traditionnel de Champagne

Von der Lese zum Pressen

Sobald die Trauben in der Kelterei eintreffen, werden sie gewogen und in ein Verzeichnis eingetragen. Die Pressung wird in einem Kellerbuch festgehalten, in dem jedes „Marc“ (Fassungsvermögen einer Presse, entspricht 4.000 Kilogramm Trauben) lagen- und rebsortenrein identifiziert wird. Das Kellerbuch wird dem Winzer ausgehändigt oder an den Käufer des Mosts – ein Champagne-Haus –weitergegeben. Außerdem wird der für die jeweilige Ernte vorgeschriebene Mindestalkoholgehalt kontrolliert.

Le pressage du raisin noir

Da Zweidrittel der verfügbaren Trauben eine rote Schale haben, müssen bei der Herstellung von Weißwein fünf wichtige Grundsätze beachtet werden

  • Pressung unmittelbar im Anschluss an die Lese
  • Ganztraubenpressung
  • Behutsame und schrittweise Pressung 
  • Geringe Extraktionsleistung 
  • Trennung der Säfte bei Austritt aus der Presse

Trennung der Säfte, "Cuvée" und "Taille"

Aus 4.000 Kilogramm Trauben dürfen nur 25,5 Hektoliter Most gewonnen werden. Bei der Pressung trennt man die ersten austretenden 20,5 Hektoliter, die „Cuvée“, von den folgenden 5 Hektoliter, der „Taille“. Beide Mostarten haben jeweils ganz spezifische Eigenschaften: Die Cuvée enthält besonders reinen Saft aus dem Fruchtfleisch und ist sehr zucker- und säurehaltig (Wein- und Apfelsäure). Cuvée-Weine sind äußerst vielschichtig und ihre subtilen Aromen hinterlassen eine angenehme Frische am Gaumen. Sie lassen sich gut lagern. Die Taille ist ebenfalls sehr zuckerhaltig, liefert jedoch weniger Säure. Stattdessen ist sie reich an Mineralsalzen (insbesondere Kalium) und Farbstoffen.Taille-Wein hat im jungen Stadium ein intensives Aroma und ist sehr fruchtig. Er lässt sich jedoch nicht so lange lagern.

Die Presszentren der Champagne

Die Kapazität der Pressen beträgt zwischen 2.000 und 12.000 Kilogramm ganze Trauben. Bis Ende der 1980er Jahre wurden in der Champagne nur traditionelle vertikale Pressen verwendet, die von Hand betrieben wurden. Diese traditionellen Pressen stellen noch 28 % des Maschinenparks, doch aufgrund der Automatisierung der „Retrousse“-Verfahren (Umwälzen des Marc zwischen den einzelnen Pressgängen) werden zunehmend auch horizontale Pressen (Pressen mit Seitenmembran, Schrägflächen, rotierendem Boden) eingesetzt, die über Steuerkonsolen mit verschiedenen Programmen bedient werden.


Die Typizität der Crus

Jede Ladung eines Crus wird bei Ankunft in der Kelterei mit Datum und Uhrzeit der Lese registriert. Die Pressung erfolgt getrennt um eine maximale Rückverfolgbarkeit der Herkunft zu bewahren. Dafür werden homogene Trester gebildet: gleiche Rebsorte, gleiche Parzelle oder gemeinsames Pressen von vergleichbaren Parzellen.

Der Rosé-Champagne

Um einen Rosé-Champagne mittels Maischegärung herzustellen, lässt man die rotschaligen, entrappten Trauben vor der Pressung einige Stunden (je nach Jahrgang 24 bis 72 Stunden) im Tank einweichen, bis der Saft die gewünschte Farbe hat.

Zulassung der Presszentren

Wie alle Verfahren in der Champagne, die einem anspruchsvolles Qualitätsniveau genügen müssen, wird das Pressen durch die AOC (kontrollierte Ursprungsbezeichnung) geregelt. 
Die Hauptkriterien für die Zulassung sind :

  • Überdachter Standort der Presse
  • Kapazität der Presse
  • Obergrenze des Fassungsvermögens pro Tag
  • individuelle Größe der Presse
  • Kontrollmöglichkeit der Durchflussrate für den Anlagenführer
  • geeignete Waagen
  • überdachter Lagerbereich
  • möglichst minimale Fallhöhe der Trauben
  • Trennung der Säfte

Pressung und nachhaltiger Weinbau

Zwischen jeder Marc-Ladung muss die Presse entleert und mit Wasser gereinigt werden. Im Rahmen eines nachhaltigen Weinbaus wird der Trester („Aignes“) nach der Pressung an Brennereien geliefert und das Abwasser (aus der Reinigung der Pressen, Traubenbehälter, Fässer etc.) aufgefangen und aufbereitet, damit die Umwelt keinen Schaden nimmt.


Quelle: Bureau de Champagne



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Glossary of important Sake terms..

Sake Glossary Terms

Go to the following link and explore some very important Sake terms Glossary-of-important-terms.pdf.

This terms will help you a lot on your way to the Certified Sake Sommelier..

The details for the next course on

Have a nice day and kanpai by Suwine..

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Bodylanguage "Körpersprache & Rhetorik als Geheimwaffe im Verkauf "


    - 2h 

    Mach deinen Arbeitsplatz zu deiner eigenen Bühne! Oft sind Kompromisse und gekonnte Improvisation nicht immer der beste und einfachste Weg. Lerne Tücken und Herausvorderrungen des Arbeitsalltags souverän zu deinem Vorteil und Erfolg umzuwandeln. Begeistere mit gezielter Körpersprache, fühl dich besser und steigere deine Umsätze. Auch dieses Seminar wird gerne auf dich abgestimmt mit Bezug auf spezifische Schwerpunkte.

     “In Stille und Bewegung kann man das Spiegelbild der Leute zeigen.”  
    Marcel Marceaus 

    Anmeldung per e-mail: Diese E-Mail-Adresse ist vor Spambots geschützt! Zur Anzeige muss JavaScript eingeschaltet sein!  oder Diese E-Mail-Adresse ist vor Spambots geschützt! Zur Anzeige muss JavaScript eingeschaltet sein! - Schwerpunktbezogen nach Vereinbarung.

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